The Four P's of Marketing


Note that the 4ps represent the selling company's view of the marketing tools available to influence buyers. From the point of view of the purchasing company, each marketing tool is designed to provide a benefit to the customer.


  • Variety of products,
  • Quality,
  • Design,
  • Features,
  • Brand Name,
  • Packing,
  • Sizes,
  • Services,
  • Warranties,
  • Returns


  • List Price,
  • Discount,
  • Concessions,
  • Payment terms,
  • Payment conditions


  • Sales promotion,
  • Advertising,
  • Sales force,
  • Public relations,
  • Direct marketing


  • Channels,
  • Roof,
  • Variety,
  • Locations,
  • Stock,
  • Transport


See too The Four C's of the Customer

Robert Lauterborn suggested that the seller's 4ps match the customers' 4cs.

  • Product = customer solution,
  • Price = cost to the customer,
  • square = convenience
  • Promotion = communication.

Winning companies will be those that manage to meet customer needs in a cost-effective and convenient way, with effective communication.

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