Data Transmission Models

transmissão de dados
data transmission


In this transmission medium, several bits are transmitted simultaneously. This type of transmission is faster but much more expensive.

This type of transmission cannot be used over long distances as there may be data loss, it is ideal for very short distances.


In serial transmission, bits are transmitted one at a time.

This type of transmission is the most used because its cost is low, which makes it viable.

It is widely used for long-distance data transmission over optimal fiber or twisted pair.

As this type of transmission is transmitted one bit at a time, it is necessary to know where a piece of data begins and ends. There are three ways to solve this:

Synchronous Serial Transmission

In synchronous serial transmission, there is a sync between sender and receiver so that the receiver always knows when a new character is being sent.


In asynchronous transmission, a receiver does not need to know when a data stream will be sent. Characters are sent one by one, with no timing in between.


Isochronous transmission is a type of transmission in which the data transfer rate is pre-negotiated between the sending and receiving devices, creating a continuous data delivery rate. It was originally created to enable the constant and complete delivery of video communications via broadcast.

data transmission


Data only flows in one direction.

Half Duplex

Data flows in both directions but is transmitted in one direction at a time.

Full Duplex

Data flows in both directions simultaneously.

Ways to forward packets (data) over a network


it is a form of forwarding in which data is distributed
“closest destination” or “best” according to the network.


it is the process by which certain information is transmitted or spread, having as its main characteristic that the same information is being sent to all receivers at the same time.


it is the simultaneous delivery of information to selected recipients.


is an addressing of a packet made to a single destination, that is,
compared to the multicast, delivery in unicast it's simple, point to point.


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